Loss on drying:
Solubility in water:
C6 H12 O6
White to off-white fine-crystalline powder
ca. 230 ºC
Stable under normal processing and storage conditions of foods and dietary supplements, no indications for undesired reactions or interactions with other food constituents or ingredients of dietary supplements
Hydroxytyrosol is the main phenol found in olives. It is present in the fruit and leaf of the olive (Olea europaea L.) which belongs to the family Oleaceae. It has a strong antioxidant capacity which doubles quercetin in free radical scavenging. Hydroxytyrosol has a vital role in the protection of low-density lipoproteins and consequently has implication in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases risk.
The most abundant phenols in extra virgin olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones and their derivatives. They are formed in olives by enzymatic removal of glucose from the polar parent compound oleuropein glycoside. End products of hydrolysis of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones in olive oil are the polar compounds hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, respectively. Hydroxytyrosol is the main phenol found in olives. It is present in the fruit and leaf of the olive (Olea europaea L.) which belongs to the family Oleaceae. It has a strong antioxidant capacity which doubles quercetin in free radical scavenging. Hydroxytyrosol has an essential role in the protection of low-density lipoproteins and consequently implies the reduction of cardiovascular diseases risk.
Hydroxytyrosol in oil is found free, in acetate form or as a part of more complex compounds like oleacein, oleuropein, and verbascoside. Oleuropein is responsible for the bitter taste of olives and decreases as the fruit ripens turning into unglycosylated form, oleuropein aglycone by enzymatic hydrolysis, and finally converted into hydroxytyrosol, being this one an indicator of maturation of the olives.
Hydroxytyrosol is one of the natural antioxidants with highest physiological activity.
In the human body, DCI is excreted as such. The clearance highly depends on the physiological state of the organism, and it is significantly increased in diabetic people.
Hydroxytyrosol and antioxidant and scavenging of free radicals
Euronutra hydroxytyrosol antioxidant was evaluated by using the stable free radical DPPH.
The radical scavenging ability of single polyphenols present in the extract (verbascoside, hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid) was compared to ascorbic acid and oleuropein. Verbascoside turned out to be five times more active compared to oleuropein.
Euronutra hydroxytyrosol polyphenols were tested for their scavenging activity on superoxide anion, an activated oxygen species. This model mimics closely the in vivo situation, since the formation of the superoxide anion takes place in tissues and cells, and is, for example, triggered by UV exposure of the skin.
These data are related to an independent study showing that verbascoside outperforms caffeic acid or hydroxytyrosol, both individually and in equimolar mixtures, in antioxidant assays.
Hydroxytyrosol and anti-inflammatory effects
Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. A deficiency in a specific D-chiro-inositol-containing inositol phospho glycan mediator may contribute to insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Study results indicate that the use of insulin-sensitizing agents in patients with PCOS may improve their sensitivity to the effects of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolism but also ameliorate clinical and biochemical manifestations. In one study, women suffering from PCOS given 600 mg/d for 6 – 8 weeks in comparison to a placebo group DCI improved glucose tolerance, decreased serum androgens and improved ovulation. Insulin-sensitising therapy seems, therefore, a promising therapy for the treatment of PCOS, offering metabolic and gynaecologic benefits for women who suffer from this syndrome. Should favourable results with DCI be repeated, it could play a role in such therapies.
Humans well tolerate Euronutra hydroxytyrosol.
Long-term DCI ingestion by humans from different plant foods which contain DCI like buckwheat or carob pods has not shown adverse effects. Neither has a higher incidence of negative effects compared to placebo groups been reported from human studies with DCI of several hundred mg per person per day for several weeks. Based on the historical evidence, it can reasonably be concluded that the intake of a reasonable amount of DCI is safe.
Euronutra hydroxytyrosol is often consumed for its physiological effects and therefore generally classified as a food and not as a food additive. Whenever specific pharmaceutical effects are claimed, products with DCI may be classified as a pharmaceutical and require a respective authorisation.
In the EU, DCI has been consumed as part of the regular diet by consumption of carob and soy products for decades if not centuries. Only consumption of well-exceeding levels the intake from these sources may require an examination of whether the specific use has to be authorised. Health claims have to be approved by the EU under conditions outlined in Regulation 1924/2006/EC, especially art. 13 and 14. Claims going beyond a health claim require the authorisation of DCI formulations as a pharmaceutical.
In Japan, DCI-containing products would be qualified by FOSHU (Foods for Specified Health Uses) responsible for the approval provided that the general requirements of effectiveness, safety, appropriate ingredients and adequate quality control are met.
In the USA, DCI is qualified for use in dietary supplements. Any claims on DCI functions have to be based on scientific evidence and to be accompanied by the following statement: “The Food and Drug Administration has not evaluated this statement. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease”. Any claim referring to treatment or cure of a disease makes a product a pharmaceutical which would require authorisation under pharmaceuticals legislation.